There is an inextricable link between the protection of the environment and the protection of civilians across in the armed conflict-affected areas. This publication explains the breadth and complexity of conflict-linked environmental harm. The case studies presented outline why attention to the environment in relation to armed conflicts is necessary. From illegal forestry in post-conflict Colombia to the scenes of wanton agricultural destruction in Iraq, the conflict-induced governance gaps leave not only civilians but the environment directly in harma’s way. Ongoing environmental risks from fighting in industrialised areas in Ukraine and Syria illustrate the toxic legacies of warfare.